Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): The Bedrock of Depression Treatment & How Ketamine Infusions Can Help When SSRIs Aren’t Working!
At NeuroMend Infusion Center, patients who receive Ketamine infusion therapy to treat their depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders have often failed two or more medication trials and often these failed medications include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
In fact, those patients who have failed two or more medications are considered to have treatment resistant depression and are perfect candidates for Ketamine infusion therapy. Ketamine infusions have proven effective in significantly improving symptoms of depression in over 70% of “treatment resistant” patients.
Unfortunately, for the past 20 years, the number of people taking one or more antidepressants has continued to rise. It is believed that 1 in 10 Americans is currently on an antidepressant and amongst women in their 40s and 50s the rate is as high as 25%.
In 2015, over 16 million American adults suffered at least one major depressive episode! When treating patients with depression, psychiatrists and other mental health providers often rightly reach for medications and the most commonly used medication class for treating depression is SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors).
What are SSRIs and how do they work?
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, also known as SSRIs, are the most commonly prescribed antidepressant medication. They are considered relatively safe with fewer side effects than most other oral antidepressant medications and thus are often prescribed as a first-line treatment for major depressive disorder.
There are several different kinds of SSRIs, but they all work in the same basic way. Nerve cells in the brain “talk” to each other via chemical neurotransmitters. Serotonin is one such neurotransmitter.
deficiency in serotonin
One of the many theories of depression is that there is a deficiency in serotonin among other neurotransmitter chemicals in the brain.
SSRIs work by blocking serotonin receptors in the brain, preventing the reuptake of serotonin back into the brain cells (neurons), thus allowing more serotonin to be present to help transmit signals between the brain cells.
There are several drugs in this class: Prozac (Fluoxetine), Luvox (Fluvoxamine), Paxil (Paroxetine), Zoloft (Sertraline), Celexa (Citalopram) and Lexapro (Escitalopram).
What conditions do SSRIs treat?
In general, the SSRIs, as a class of medications, can all be used to treat major depressive disorder (depression). In addition, they are often used in conjunction with mood stabilizers in those individuals with bipolar depression.
As a general rule, most SSRIs are also commonly used to treat:
Generalized anxiety disorder
PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)
OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder)
FDA approved Medications
Although only a few are actually FDA approved for these disorders.
FDA approved for the treatment of Panic Disorder
FDA approved for the treatment of PTSD
FDA approved for the treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder
FDA approved for the treatment of OCD
Of note, Prozac (Fluoxetine) is the only SSRI approved for children over 8 years old for depression.
not FDA approved medications and conditions
Of course, just because a medication is not FDA approved for a given condition, does not mean it is unsafe or should not be prescribed to treat that condition.
Off-label prescribing of SSRIs (and many other medications) is common and accepted by psychiatrists and mental health providers and is in fact necessary as there are not great alternatives otherwise.
SSRI’s typically can cause side effects such as:
- blurred vision,
- dry mouth,
- joint pain,
- upset stomach,
- weight gain and
- sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction.
Some people, especially children, may be more likely to develop suicidal thoughts when taking SSRIs.
How to take SSRIs and Withdrawal Symptoms
In addition, SSRIs must be taken daily, and once started, they should not be abruptly stopped nor should you miss several doses in a row. If this happens, some people will experience withdrawal or “flu-like” symptoms.
How long does it take for SSRIs to work?
Treatment with SSRIs does not yield instant results.
If SSRIs are going to work, patients will usually feel some positive benefit by 4-6 weeks after starting treatment, but it can take up to several months before patient feels the full effect.
how effective are SSRIs at treating depression?
Efficacy rates are variable depending on the study, but results from the famous STAR*D trial demonstrated that approximately ⅓ of patients achieved remission on a first antidepressant such as an SSRI.
Since roughly ⅔ of patients do not improve after just one antidepressant, often multiple trials of different medications are therefore necessary before the patient will see any benefit. Many patients will end up trying several different medications and some of the medications will have no benefit or intolerable side effects.
What can I do if SSRIs and other medications are not working to treat my depression?
Ketamine Infusions and Depression
Ketamine infusions have been proven, in numerous controlled studies, to have a 70% efficacy rate in reducing the symptoms of depression.
In addition, Ketamine infusions work quickly.
Patients will know after 1-2 infusions whether or not these treatments are working, which is much faster than typical oral antidepressants such as SSRIs.
With the success of ketamine seen across the nation the creation of an FDA approved treatment was inevitable. In 2019 a nasal spray, Esketamine also known as Spravato was approved for the treatment of TRD.
With the addition of this new medications patients now have the option to utilize either ketamine or esketamine treatments for their depression.
NeuroMend Infusion Center is now a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) certified to provide SPRAVATO™ (esketamine) CIII, a nasal spray approved for use in conjunction with an oral antidepressant in adults with treatment-resistant depression (TRD).
People who are currently struggling with major depressive disorder (MDD) may have TRD if they have not responded adequately to at least two different antidepressants of adequate dose and duration in the current depressive episode.2
Disclaimer: As of September 29, 2023, NeuroMend no longer offers Spravato treatments. We apologize for any inconvenience and encourage you to consult with our team or your healthcare provider for alternative options.
Ketamine infusions have truly revolutionized depression treatment
Our doctors, nurses, and staff at NeuroMend feel blessed to be able to provide this service to patients across the country.
If you or your loved one is suffering from treatment resistant depression despite trying medications such as SSRIs, give us a call at (877) 998-2002 or email us at firstname.lastname@example.org to learn more about how Ketamine can help!
We are an Evidence-Based Center of Excellence and the leading provider of Ketamine Infusions.
We Provide Effective Treatment For The Following Conditions: Major Depressive Disorders, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Bipolar Depression, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Chronic Migraines, Severe Anxiety, Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Syndromes.